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Q: What has been the biggest moment in MPAs in the U.S. to date?

Executive Order 13158, signed on May 22, 2000 by President Bill Clinton. At the end of his administration, Clinton issued this order which gave a major boost to the effort to create a national network of MPAs. To read the details of it, go to:


Q: Is this just a left wing, environmentalist, Democrat project?

Doesn’t seem to be – to the consternation of the Recreational Fishing Alliance, President Bush reaffirmed Clinton’s E.O. 13158 in 2001.



Around the world, MPAs are cropping up. Here's a tiny sample, just to convey level of current activity:

1983 - EGYPT creates Ras Mohammed Marine Protected Area
1986 - ITALY founds Riserva Marina Miramare
1987 – BELIZE establishes Hol Chan Marine Reserve
1988 - PHILLIPINES begins creation of 160 MPAs
1989 - INDONESIA announces 10 million hectares of MPAs plan
1990 - GREECE establishes Alonnissos National Marine Park
1991 - BELIZE creates Laughing Bird Caye National Park
           SINGAPORE creates Sungei Buloh Nature Reserve
           PHILLIPINES establishes El Nido Marine Reserve
           JAMAICA creates Montego Bay Marine Park
1992 - MALAYSIA announces 21 MPAs
           VIETNAM creates Cat Ba and Con Dao Islands National Parks
1993 - NEW ZEALAND establishes Cathedral Cove Marine Reserve
           INDONESIA creates Cendrawasih National Marine Park
1994 - Malaysia creates Pulau Radang Marine Park
           JORDAN/ISRAEL co-create Red Sea Marine Peace Park
1996 - BELIZE establishes Belize Barrier Reef System
           INDONESIA established Wakatobi Marine National Park
           CHINA designates four marine parks
1997 - GUAM establishes Achang Reef Flat Marine Preserve
1998 - THAILAND creates Tarn Boke Koranee Marine Park
1999 – AUSTRALIA creates their National Representative System of MPAs
2000 - BAHAMAS announces network of no-take marine reserves                        MEXICO creates Xcalak Reefs National Marine Park
2001 - CHINA establishes Tung Ping Chao Marine Park
2004 - CANADA creates Gully Deep Water MPA
           SOUTH AFRICA designates 19% of coast for MPAs
           AUSTRALIA designates 1/3 of the Great Barrier Reef as no-fishing




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